The amount of disease in America today is astonishing. More than three out of four Americans have a diagnosable
chronic disease. This is happening because almost all Americans are in toxic overload and are chronically deficient in one
or more nutrients. Our unprecedented exposure to toxic chemicals is impairing cellular machinery, causing cellular
malfunction and disease. Chronic deficiency of even one nutrient will decrease the efficiency of all the others, causing
cellular malfunction and disease.
What causes disease? There are thousands of labels but there is only one disease called sick cells and there are only two
causes: deficiency and toxicity. Cells lacking what they need or exposed to something harmful will malfunction. Unless
cells malfunction, there can be no disease. The thousands of different diseases we experience are merely the effects of
thousands of combinations of deficiencies and toxicities acting through a combination of inherited genes, the
environment, and our beliefs, thoughts, and emotions. Preventing or reversing disease is about preventing and reversing
As the amount of deficiency and toxicity in our society continues to increase, illnesses that used to affect only the elderly
are now epidemic in younger people. Historically, cancer affected only 0.1 percent of the population. A century ago it
was 3 percent. Today, half our population will get cancer in their lifetime. Unless we get this chronic disease epidemic
under control, the economic and social effects on our nation will be catastrophic.
Knowing that disease is the result of malfunctioning cells and understanding what makes them malfunction gives YOU
the power to prevent and reverse disease. By providing cells with the nutrients they need, avoiding toxins, and living a
good lifestyle, we can put an end to our epidemic of chronic disease. Start your transformation today by committing to
Step 1 of the Discover Chiropractic Transformation Process.
REQUIRED RESOURCES FOR CELLULAR RESTORATION & METABOLIC RESET
Daily Detox System: Detoxification is a critical component of health and wellness. Chemicals in our food supply, the air we
breathe, and more can build up in our systems causing health risks and work against maintaining a healthy body. Natural
supplements and healthy diet can be helpful detox tools that may help cleanse, recharge, and rejuvenate.
The majority of detoxification formulas available on the market contain harsh laxatives that do more harm than good. These
formulas are not designed to promote your body’s natural ability to detoxify in a slow and healthy manner; instead they can
promote rapid release of toxins. Toxins that are rapidly released without the presence of supportive nutrients can cause a
number of unfavorable reactions including overwhelming the pathways through which the toxins are eliminated. This can lead
to stagnation of toxins, hinder your ability to fully detoxify, and place a burden on remaining pathways. The most ideal way to
cleanse is with gentle herbs and nutrients that nourish your cells while simultaneously removing toxins.
The Detox System is a key component of our protocol. It is comprised of two separate components:
1. Cell Detox (A.M.) is a whole food formula containing powerful probiotics. Traditional organ system detoxifiers like
chlorella, milk thistle, and spirulina, along with intra-cellular antioxidants like glutathione, catalase, and superoxide
dismutase support the body’s defense against toxin-related free radicals.
2. Body Detox (P.M) is a unique formula containing fiber from three sources: psyllium husk, flax seed meal, and
glucomannan. Whole body detoxifiers in Body Detox like peppermint leaf, fennel seeds, ginger root, and fenugreek
seed, along with activated charcoal that effectively binds to toxins helps your body naturally eliminate them.
Daily Defense: Oxidation is a byproduct of toxicity. Antioxidants like turmeric, superoxide dismutase and Indian gooseberry
remove free radicals, greatly reducing oxidative stress levels. The curcuminoids found in turmeric have been extensively
studied for their ability to repair damage caused by toxicity improving cardiovascular function, reducing inflammation,
supporting musculoskeletal health, and maintaining immune system health.
In the detoxification process, glutathione is easily one of the most important molecules needed to stay healthy and prevent
disease. It plays a role in aging, cancer, heart disease, cognitive decline and more. Supplementation with N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine
supports healthy glutathione levels and mitigates the negative effects of toxins, stress, trauma, medications and more.
Daily Defense’s potent antioxidant formula contains Curcumin C3 Complex, a form of highly absorbable turmeric extract, as
well as Extramel M, a clinically studied melon extract rich in superoxide dismutase with extremely powerful antioxidant
activity and anti-stress effects. Indian gooseberry provides additional protection against oxidative stress and
N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine provides multifaceted cellular support against free radicals.
Green Vibrance: One of the biggest challenges with any ketogenic diet is that you are eating more fat and protein
than usual, both of which are acidic, so you need to load up on alkalizing foods. Most of us never consider the
acid/alkaline balance on our blood or tissues. Green Vibrance is designed as a concentrated, nutrient-dense food from
vegetable sources that is meant to ease chronic nutrient deficiency. Nutrient deficiencies are epidemic in our population.
Based on the Dietary Reference Intakes, 92 percent of us are suffering from at least one mineral or vitamin deficiency. Indeed,
the food supply is so compromised, it is no longer possible to get the nutrition you need, even if you eat a good diet. Chronic
deficiency of even one nutrient will ultimately cause disease, supplementing with Green Vibrance is essential in making your
body sufficient so your body can heal. Packed with micronutrients and designed to support the four foundations of health,
Green Vibrance is designed to help improve and strengthen digestion and immune health, provide nutrition from
nutrient-dense, concentrated whole foods, improves circulation to help deliver trace nutrients to each cell of the body.
The objective of Green Vibrance is to:
● Support a healthy digestive tract, thereby improving nutrient absorption;
● Deliver trace nutrients at Paleolithic concentrations (far higher than found in modern diets);
● Improve circulation and cardiovascular health in order to deliver those nutrients to every cell of the body;*
● Support a vigorous and efficient immune system;
● Directly or indirectly support the other body systems (i.e. musculoskeletal, neurological, integumentary (skin),
respiratory, urinary, endocrine, cardiovascular/circulatory, digestive, reproductive and immune)
● Packed with micronutrients and designed to support the four foundations of health, Green Vibrance is designed to:
● Helps improve and strengthen digestion and immune health
● Provides nutrition from nutrient-dense, concentrated whole foods
● Improves circulation to help deliver trace nutrients to each cell of the body
Choice One Of The Following Protein In Addition To Collagen Protein: Protein is a macronutrient that is the key
building block of your muscles which support your body’s ability to move, maintain posture, and circulate blood. Your body
uses protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals used to maintain a healthy metabolism, and protein is
used to build and repair tissues. In addition, protein is an important component of your bones, cartilage, skin, blood, hair, and
nails. As a macronutrient, protein is essential, meaning your body does not store it and you need to consume it in large
Pure Path Bone Broth Protein: MaxLiving PurePathProtein helps you build muscle and strengthen your joints with 21
grams of concentrated HydroBEEF protein derived from bone broth. PurePathProtein is exclusively designed for rapid
absorption and usability enhancing your muscle repair and recovery after exercise or supporting everyday activities. The
proprietary process of making HydroBEEF begins in Sweden with hormone-free and non-GMO raised
cattle. PurePathProtein is available in a convenient protein powder packed with collagen-specific amino acids and other
critical vitamins and nutrients that support your musculoskeletal system. Naturally sweetened with stevia, PurePathProtein is
available in delicious Chocolate and Vanilla flavors.
Perfect Whey Protein: Perfect Whey Protein is hormone-free, grass fed whey protein is rich in nutrients that help you
fuel your body. It is delicately processed to ensure that vital enzymes, vitamins, minerals and other immune factors remain
intact. When compared to whey isolates, whey concentrate contains more biologically active components. It is loaded with 18
essential, conditional, and nonessential amino acids. Derived from year-round pasture-fed cow’s milk, our formula is free of
hormones, pesticides, and herbicides. This delicious, nutrient-packed powder that also provides enzymes, probiotics, and
prebiotics to improve digestion and overall health. An ideal protein powder for your everyday health or for enhanced exercise
recovery, Grass-Fed Whey Protein is fortified with additional vitamins and minerals, promoting your optimal intake of proteins
Conventional whey protein is highly processed and denatured. It is made from milk that comes from cows with diets high in
grain, pesticide-laden corn and byproducts. These cows are milked year-round and are freely given antibiotics and hormones.
Dairy cows fed a diet high in grain have higher incidence of metabolic disorder and studies show their digestive fluids contain
more toxic, inflammatory compounds and several amino acid changes. In short conventional whey protein is toxic and
Perfect Plant Protein: Perfect Plant Protein combines pea, hemp, and sachainchi for a complete source of 100%
plant-based protein. Ideal for vegans and vegetarians, it contains all the essential amino acids needed on a daily basis along
with 15 grams of protein. Enjoy an organic blend of kale, beet, green onion, and garlic along with protein-digesting enzymes
from peppermint leaves and ginger root to support a healthy digestive system.
Collagen Protein: As we age, our body’s natural production of collagen slows down by 75%. We notice this in our skin,
which is no longer as firm and smooth. In addition to our skin, the decrease in production affects the health of our gut, joints,
ligaments, hair, nails, teeth, and bones. A lack of this vital nutrient can even impact vital organs like the heart and liver. are
continually making it to maintain and repair connective tissues. As we get older, we get faster degradation on top of slower
production from the body. This is when we begin to see and feel the effects of lower collagen. In addition to the natural aging
process, there are environmental causes of reduced collagen. Environmental factors contributing to its destruction include UV
rays from the sun, stress, and toxins in food and water. Smoking and eating a diet high in sugar and processed foods also
contribute to this. For anyone trying to lose weight, collagen can support your weight loss efforts. It stimulates the release of
satiating hormones into the bloodstream which can help reduce appetite 40%.
A huge benefit for today’s society is collagen’s ability to repair and heal the gut. Leaky gut syndrome, or intestinal
hyperpermeability, is a condition in which the tight junctions in the gut lining become too large and abnormally permeable.
Undigested food particles and toxins can pass through these holes in the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream. This causes
the immune system to overreact which results in chronic inflammation.
The liver is the largest organ in the body and the primary organ for detoxification. It has detoxification pathways which filter
the blood to remove large toxins and enzymatically break down unwanted chemicals. It is also designed to transform toxic
substances into compounds that can be excreted from the body. As you are exposed to more toxins, the liver’s ability to
detoxify can be weakened. This can result in toxins being stored in our tissues and cells rather than eliminated. It also helps
the digestive system expel waste and improves the body’s use of collagen. Antioxidants aid the body’s detoxification system.
Collagen supports the body’s ability to produce chemicals that naturally support healthy joints. It also provides chondroitin
sulfate and glucosamine sulfate which support healthy joints and the body’s ability to build and repair cartilage.
30 DAY CHALLENGE SUPPLEMENTATION PROTOCOL
In The Morning
● Cell Detox: Take 2 capsules in the morning 30 minutes before a meal.
● Daily Defense: Take one capsule with morning shake
In The Evening
● Body Detox: Take 2 capsules 1 hour before bed.
Week 1: The key to success in anything is our habits and routines. Many people tried and failed many times when
trying to alter their lifestyle because of the impact food has on our brain. Food addiction involves the same areas of your
brain as drug addiction. The most problematic foods include typical junk foods like candy, sugary soda, and high-fat
fried foods. Food addiction is not caused by a lack of willpower but results from a dopamine signal that affects the
biochemistry of your brain. During the first week of the challenge the focus is to provide your body sufficient nutrients,
remove toxic substances, give your metabolism a chance to reset its blood sugar levels and give you the opportunity to
observe your current relationship with food and your habits.
● Drink 3-4 shakes daily consisting of 1 scoop of protein, 1 scoop of collagen, 1 scoop of Green Vibrance and 16 oz
(2 cups) of filtered water. You will find that you might not be able to consume 4 shakes thus modify the number
of shakes based on your bodies needs.
● Consume 1 teaspoon of coconut oil either in your shake or by mouth 3-4 times per day.
● Vegetables will be your only solid food during the first week. You may eat an unlimited variety of greens each
day. These vegetables contain essential fibers for your toxins to bind to. Do not skip this step! (Examples of high
fiber vegetables are not limited to broccoli, cucumbers, celery, snap peas, green beans, spinach, kale, asparagus,
cauliflower (yes, it’s white), zucchini, cabbage, etc. Preparing the vegetables beforehand or purchasing pre-cut
organic vegetables is helpful. You may make it into a salad using Himalayan Sea Salt and lemon for flavor if
● Drink a minimum of ½ your body weight in ounces each day starting with 32 oz (4 cups) immediately upon rising.
This is extremely important to help your body rid itself of toxins. If you don’t have a reverse osmosis filter or
don’t have the ability to purchase one, bottled water is your second-best option. ABSOLUTELY NO unfiltered tap
water!! It is Toxic!! For best results, avoid coffee, alcohol, soda or any other fluid during your challenge with the
exception of water and green tea.
● Begin reading the Align Your Health book. The objective is to have it completed by the end of your 30 day
Week 2: After completing week one many people continue with the action steps described above for an additional
week if they have weight or health issues they are trying to address. If you do not wish to proceed in this fashion, then
eliminate your evening shake and replace it with an Advanced Plan Dinner found in the back of your Align Your Health
Book. Continue with action steps listed above.
Week 3: If you decided to repeat Week 1 action steps again then follow the recommendations for Week 2. You can
eliminate your lunch and afternoon shake and replace it with an Advanced Plan meal. You may also continue replacing
the afternoon meal with shakes if you choose. Recipes for the Advanced Plan Dinner and Lunch can be found in the back
of the Align Your Health Book. Continue with other action steps listed in Week 1.
Week 4: By this time, you will have noticed significant changes in your energy, mood, weight, clarity of thought and
health issues. You should have read most of, if not all your Align Your Health Book. You have the choice to continue with
a shake for breakfast, begin eating a Advanced Plan Breakfast or begin Intermittent Fasting. If you would like to learn
more about intermittent fasting, ask one of your team members to provide you a copy of Dr. Osborne’s Book 21 Day
Transformation. At this point you are entering the final week of your challenge. Continue the action steps listed in Week
1. The lifestyle you are living is a sustainable way for you to remain sufficient and non-toxic. It also is an opportunity to
add additional nutrients called the Daily Essentials to your routine to continue your journey beyond health and toward a
Max Life! Congratulations.
· Green Coffee Bean boasts high levels of chlorogenic acid, an antioxidant that promotes weight loss by reducing the
absorption of fat and glucose in the gut, and lowering insulin levels to improve metabolic function.
· Ashwagandha is full of antioxidants that are essential for weight loss and overall well-being. These antioxidants
speed up your metabolism, decrease inflammation and help in burning the stored fat in your body. One of the main
causes of weight gain these days is the increased level of stress or high cortisol levels. One of the main causes of weight
gain these days is the increased level of stress or high cortisol levels. When stressed, people tend to binge eat as
increased cortisol levels trigger hunger by stimulating glucose production. This makes your body crave foods to replenish
energy. Ashwagandha helps in relieving stress and thus promotes weight loss. Ashwagandha also regulates the adrenal
glands and cortisol levels, which ultimately benefits the nervous system. This increases your overall energy and helps
you during your intense workouts. Ashwagandha also decreases fatigue and increases endurance. It is rich in iron, which
improves your blood circulation.
· L-glutamine is the most used amino acid in your body. It’s known as a conditional amino acid because the body uses
so much L-glutamine, it needs to supplement its own production with L-glutamine from your diet. More than most
amino acids, L-glutamine helps to promote weight loss, fat burning and muscle building. In addition to helping in weight
loss L-Glutamine has several other benefits. Most importantly, it helps heal leaky gut. As unfortunate as that name
sounds, leaky gut means exactly that, a permeability of the walls of the intestine. Studies have shown it prevents
deterioration of gut permeability and preserve mucosal structure. This ability to strengthen intestinal walls also makes
glutamine effective in healing intestinal ulcers and promoting better digestion. Glutamine literally burns fat by
prompting the secretion of human growth hormone (HGH). The new muscle growth that results is fueled in part by the
fat stores in the body. When using a glutamine supplement, HGH levels can increase over 300%, a response that leads to
an increase in resting metabolic rate. L-glutamine is also known to help control appetite. Unfortunately, one hour of
exercise can cause a 40% reduction in glutamine levels in your body.
· L-Carnitine’s main role in your body involves mitochondrial function and energy production. In cells, it helps
transport fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they can be burned for energy. About 98% of your L-carnitine stores
are contained in your muscles, along with trace amounts in your liver and blood L-carnitine help increase mitochondrial
function, which plays a key role in disease prevention and health promotion.
Potassium gives your body components necessary to provide energy for physical activity by aiding in its use of
metabolism-boosting nutrients, including iron, magnesium and calcium. For instance, people with low iron levels
invariably have low metabolisms. But the issue may have less to do with an iron deficiency than with a potassium
deficiency. Without proper potassium levels the body cannot effectively process iron and make use of it. By boosting
potassium levels, you’ll also boost your iron levels, which can improve energy and better assure you’ll stay off the couch.
Potassium also combines with magnesium to aid in muscle contraction, control and growth. Bigger, stronger muscles
burn more calories. Potassium prevents excess fluid retention because it combines with sodium help regulate fluids
around your cells and keep you from retaining too much water. This is important because at any given time, you may be
holding on to three to five pounds of water weight.
Lysozyme, causes the breakdown of certain carbohydrates found in the cell walls of certain unhealthy bacteria found in
Clove Oil helps ease digestion; healthy digestion is key to effective weight loss. Clove also helps rev up metabolism
naturally. By fighting free radical activity, cloves may also help give you beautiful skin. The winter spice may also help
regulate blood sugar levels.
Oregano Oil reduces inflammation, and since obesity is caused, in part, by inflammation in the white adipose tissue, this
reduces or eliminates that contributing factor. Research has also shown that oregano oil may be effective against types
of bacteria that can become resistant to antibiotics. Oregano also has 42 times the antioxidant level of apples and four
times that of blueberries, gram per gram. Oregano oil may also help protect against another common gut complaint
known as ‘Leaky Gut’. This happens when the gut wall becomes damaged, allowing bacteria and toxins to pass into the
Thyme oil has antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. Thyme is an herb from the mint family that
you probably recognize from your spice set. But it’s so much more than an after-thought ingredient. Its range of use is
impressive, and it has over 400 subspecies. Ancient Egyptians used it in their embalming practices, while ancient Greeks
used it as incense. Thanks to its distinctive taste, thyme has remained a culinary staple to this day. But thyme is also fast
gaining a reputation for its medicinal qualities, such as its ability to help treat acne and high blood pressure. If you’re
tired of buying and trying over-the-counter acne medication with no good results, you may be in luck. Thyme is known
for its antibacterial properties and it might have a future as an acne-fighting ingredient. When thyme is steeped in
alcohol for days or weeks, it turns into a solution known as a tincture. Researchers in the U.K. have tested the effects of
thyme tinctures on acne. In the one study done on thyme tincture, the findings were impressive. This natural herb
preparation fought pimples better than anti acne products, which included benzoyl peroxide. Time will tell if this remedy
is an effective acne treatment. Thyme essential oil, which is obtained from its leaves, is often used as a natural cough
remedy. Getting all the vitamins your body needs every day can be challenging. Luckily, thyme is packed with vitamin C
and is also a good source of vitamin A. If you feel a cold coming on, thyme can help get you back in good health. More
than 70-percent of the immune system resides in the digestive tract. When we experience inflammation of the intestinal
wall due to eating refined carbohydrates, immune response diminishes.
Science has proven time after time that food is potent medicine. Broccoli, for example, has a solid scientific foundation
showing it’s one of the most valuable health-promoting foods around. While it contains several health-promoting
compounds, one of the most widely studied is sulforaphane. Broccoli and broccoli sprouts have potent anticancer
activity courtesy of sulforaphane, a naturally occurring organic sulfur, and other chemoprotective compounds.
The cancer-fighting properties of sulforaphane are perhaps the most well-known, but it has also been shown to benefit
your heart and brain, boosting detoxification and helping prevent and/or treat high blood pressure, heart disease,
Alzheimer’s and even autism.
Broccoli in the Treatment of Diabetes
Results from a Swedish study suggest sulforaphane may be helpful in the treatment of diabetes as well, lowering blood
glucose levels and improving gene expression in your liver. Medical News Today reports: “While there are medications,
such as metformin, that can help people with type 2 diabetes to manage their blood glucose levels, [doctoral student
Annika] Axelsson and team note that some patients are unable to use them due to their severe side effects, which include
As such, there is a need for safer alternatives. Could sulforaphane meet this need? To answer this question, Axelsson and
colleagues created a genetic signature for type 2 diabetes, based on 50 genes associated with the condition. The
researchers then applied this signature to public gene expression data.
This allowed them to assess the effects of more than 3,800 compounds on gene expression changes in liver cells that are
associated with type 2 diabetes. The team found that sulforaphane — a chemical compound present in cruciferous
vegetables including broccoli sprouts, Brussel sprouts, cabbage and watercress — demonstrated the strongest effects.”
Sulforaphane Lowers Glucose Levels in Obese Diabetics With Poor Glucose Control
In tests using cultured liver cells, sulforaphane was shown to reduce glucose production. In diabetic rats, the compound
improved gene expression in the liver. Next, they tested a broccoli sprout extract on 97 adults diagnosed with type 2
diabetes. All except three were also taking metformin.
After 12 weeks, patients with dysregulated diabetes who received a daily dose of broccoli sprout extract — containing
an amount of sulforaphane equivalent to about 11 pounds (5 kilos) of broccoli — in addition to metformin had 10
percent lower fasting blood glucose levels than the placebo group. This is a significant enough improvement to reduce
your risk of health complications, according to the authors, who described sulforaphane’s effects as follows:
“Sulforaphane suppressed glucose production from hepatic cells by nuclear translocation of [Nrf2] and decreased
expression of key enzymes in gluconeogenesis.
Moreover, sulforaphane reversed the disease signature in the livers from diabetic animals and attenuated exaggerated
glucose production and glucose intolerance by a magnitude similar to that of metformin. Finally, sulforaphane, provided
as a concentrated broccoli sprout extract, reduced fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in obese
patients with dysregulated type 2 diabetes.”
No effect was seen in patients whose diabetes was already well-regulated. According to the authors, broccoli extract
may be a good complement to metformin, as the two compounds reduce blood glucose in very different ways. While
metformin sensitizes your cells to insulin, thereby increasing cellular uptake of glucose (which reduces blood levels),
sulforaphane acts by suppressing liver enzymes that stimulate glucose production.
For patients who cannot tolerate metformin, the supplement may be “an ideal substitute.” In future tests, the
researchers will evaluate the effects of sulforaphane on people with prediabetes to see whether it might help prevent
type 2 diabetes from developing in the first place.
Sulforaphane Also Combats Fatty Liver
As discussed in a recent Bulletproof blog post, the protein Nrf2 binds to antioxidant response element (ARE), a “master
switch” that regulates antioxidant and glutathione production in your body. This helps explain why sulforaphane appears
to offer such potent protection against chronic disease, as sulforaphane activates Nrf2.
In addition to combating diabetes and cancer, broccoli may also be an important dietary intervention for nonalcoholic
fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which affects up to 25 percent of Americans,including children. NAFLD is defined as an
excessive accumulation of fats in your liver in the absence of significant alcohol consumption.
Other Health-Promoting Compounds in Broccoli
Aside from sulforaphane, broccoli contains several other health-promoting nutrients and compounds, including:
• Fiber, which helps nourish your gut microbiome to strengthen your immune function and reduce your risk of
inflammatory diseases. Fiber also activates a gene called T-bet, which is essential for producing immune cells in the lining
of your digestive tract. These immune cells, called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), help maintain balance between immunity
and inflammation in your body and produce interleukin-22, a hormone that helps protect your body from pathogenic
bacteria. ILCs even help resolve cancerous lesions and prevent the development of bowel cancers and other
• Glucoraphanin, a glucosinolate precursor of sulforaphane that influences carcinogenesis and mutagenesis.Compared
to mature broccoli, broccoli sprouts can contain up to 20 times more glucoraphanin
• Phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, which have a potent ability to eliminate damaging free
radicals and quell inflammation, resulting in a lower risk for diseases such as asthma, type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
One of the ways phenolic compounds slow the encroachment of disease is by defending against infection, most
dramatically by zapping ROS linked to atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and
• Diindolylmethane (DIM). Your body produces DIM when it breaks down cruciferous vegetables. Like many other
broccoli compounds, DIM has shown multiple potential benefits, including boosting your immune system and helping to
prevent or treat cancer.
• Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an enzyme involved in the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
(NAD), a compound involved in mitochondrial health and energy metabolism. NAD may slow age-related decline in
health by restoring your metabolism to more youthful levels.